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Frana magnetica - mulinete cast

16 martie 2009 | Retine | Tipariti | 155 comentarii |
Franele magnetice din majoritatea mulinetelor de baitcast, fie ele Daiwa, Abu, Shimano, Quantum opereaza pe principiul inductiei magnetice, conform legii lui Lenz.

Pe scurt, legea lui Lenz spune ca asupra unui conductor care se misca perpendicular pe un camp magnetic va fi indusa o forta de sens opus miscarii care a produs-o. Legea lui Lenz este practic o consecinta a Legii conservarii energiei a lui Faraday, iar aceasta forta de sens opus este cea care genereaza efectul de franare magnetica la mulinetele noastre – exact la fel cum se intampla la motoare, generatoare si multe alte dispozitive electro-mecanice.
Faraday a descoperit ca, in realitate, aceasta forta de sens opus apare ca urmare a faptului ca pe suprafata conductorului se induce un curent electric. Curentul si forta de sens opus rezulta fie prin miscarea conductorului printr-un camp magnetic, fie prin miscarea magnetilor pe langa un conductor stationar. [Ambele metode au fost folosite de-a lungul anilor la mulinetele cu frana magnetica]
Daca veti studia toate formulele descoperite de Faraday si Lenz, veti constata ca marimea fortei de sens opus create depinde de mai multi factori, din care o parte sunt mentionati mai jos.

Frana magnetica

* Puterea campului magnetic. Cu cat sunt mai multe linii de flux magnetic care se intersecteaza cu conductorul, cu atat mai mare va fi forta de sens opus generata.

* Distanta intre conductor si magnet(i). Cu cat distanta este mai mica, cu atat este mai mare puterea campului magnetic, prin urmare este generata o forta de sens opus mai mare.

* Conductivitatea conductorului. Cu cat este mai mare conductivitatea conductorului (de exemplu, rezistenta electrica mai joasa), cu atat mai mare este forta de sens opus generata.

* Marimea conductorului. Cu cat este mai mare suprafata conductorului aflata in campul magnetic, cu atat se genereaza mai multa forta de sens opus. [Intrucat suprafata este determinata de grosime, cu cat este mai gros conductorul, cu atat este mai mare forta.]

* Viteza cu care conductorul se misca in campul magnetic. Cu cat este mai mare viteza (sau numarul de rotatii pe minut, in cazul miscarii de rotatie), cu atat se genereaza o forta mai mare de sens opus. [Acest parametru este fundamental in orice model de frana magnetica – si toate mulinetele magnetice functioneaza asa!] In lipsa miscarii, nu se genereaza nici o forta de sens opus si nici un efect de franare.

Ce ne intereseaza pe noi la acest capitol este faptul ca forta de sens opus poate fi variata prin ajustare, proces ca te trimite cu gandul direct la reglajul mulinetei. Unii producatori numesc conductorul care se misca in campul electric “inductor”, deoarece curentul electric este indus direct in el. Inductorul poate fi sub forma de placa neteda, cilindru gol sau cupa conductoare non-magnetica, atasata la tambur; poate fi chiar partea laterala a tamburului insusi. Indiferent de model, forta de torsiune de sens opus dezvoltata pe inductor (echilibrata de tensiunea tamburului de la pinion) este cea care impiedica tamburul sa se invarta prea repede intr-o mulineta franata magnetic.

Diagrama functionare frana magnetica

Franarea magnetica va aparea numai atunci cand inductorul este in miscare, asa ca inainte de a executa un lanseu nu exista nici o miscare a inductorului si nici un efect de franare.

Cand executati un lanseu:
1. Imediat ce tamburul incepe sa se miste, forta de torsiune de sens opus este produsa si efectul de franare incepe sa se manifeste;
2. Pe masura ce tamburul accelereaza, efectul de franare se intensifica pentru ca viteza inductorului creste;
3. Pe masura ce tamburul incetineste, efectul de franare descreste pentru ca scade viteza inductorului.
Franarea magnetica are niste avantaje dragute, comparativ cu franarea pe baza de frecare. Intrucat nu exista contact intre magneti si inductor, nu exista riscul ca anumite componente sa se uzeze. In plus, reglarea franarii se poate face din afara mulinetei, facandu-le ideale pentru pescarii nefamiliarizati cu mulinetele de cast, care pot astfel invata cum sa lanseze.

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